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What is PRISM?

Quite recently, there have been news and rumors circulating all over the internet about PRISM. According to articles published by the Washington Post and the Guardian, PRISM is a covert collaboration between the NSA, FBI and the many tech companies we depend on daily. Fancy naming aside, it is actually a real US government program that is said to have started in 2007 to monitor potentially valuable foreign communications that could pass through US servers.

With the help of companies such as Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, AOL, Apple and the like, the US government is able to access tremendous wealth of data and communications that passes through the companies’ servers. These information are then cascaded to the FBI’s Data Intercept Technology Unit which in turn reports to the NSA.

Documents describing the previously undisclosed program, obtained by the Washington Post, show the breadth of U.S. electronic surveillance capabilities in the wake of a widely publicized controversy over warrantless wiretapping of U.S. domestic telephone communications in 2005. See a handful of these documents in the screenshots below:

A slide briefing analysts at the National Security Agency about the program touts its effectiveness and features the logos of the companies involved.

This diagram shows how the bulk of the world’s electronic communications move through companies based in the United States.

The PRISM program collects a wide range of data from the nine companies, although the details vary by provider.

This slide shows when each company joined the program, with Microsoft being the first, on Sept. 11, 2007, and Apple the most recent, in October 2012.

Which means, basically, PRISM has allowed the US government unprecedented access to each and everyone’s personal information for the last six years. That includes chats, emails, pictures, videos and calls. Everything that makes up our online identity.  Scary, isn’t it?

Well, according to Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, there is nothing to worry about PRISM. He writes:

The Guardian and The Washington Post articles refer to collection of communications pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. They contain numerous inaccuracies.

Section 702 is a provision of FISA that is designed to facilitate the acquisition of foreign intelligence information concerning non-U.S. persons located outside the United States. It cannot be used to intentionally target any U.S. citizen, any other U.S. person, or anyone located within the United States.

Activities authorized by Section 702 are subject to oversight by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the Executive Branch, and Congress. They involve extensive procedures, specifically approved by the court, to ensure that only non-U.S. persons outside the U.S. are targeted, and that minimize the acquisition, retention and dissemination of incidentally acquired information about U.S. persons.

Section 702 was recently reauthorized by Congress after extensive hearings and debate.

Information collected under this program is among the most important and valuable foreign intelligence information we collect, and is used to protect our nation from a wide variety of threats.

The unauthorized disclosure of information about this important and entirely legal program is reprehensible and risks important protections for the security of Americans.

From what he wrote above, Clapper basically assures everyone that the US government’s PRISM program is totally legal and very important to ensure protection of US citizens (and to some degree, the subscribers and users of all the tech companies they have been tapping the last 6 years) from a variety of threats.

Not contented? To further ease the tension caused by the news about PRISM, Apple, Google, Microsoft, and just recently, Facebook, have published their individual albeit seemingly rehearsed press releases regarding the matter. Says Mark Zuckerberg in his personal FB page:

I want to respond personally to the outrageous press reports about PRISM:

Facebook is not and has never been part of any program to give the US or any other government direct access to our servers. We have never received a blanket request or court order from any government agency asking for information or metadata in bulk, like the one Verizon reportedly received. And if we did, we would fight it aggressively. We hadn’t even heard of PRISM before yesterday.

When governments ask Facebook for data, we review each request carefully to make sure they always follow the correct processes and all applicable laws, and then only provide the information if is required by law. We will continue fighting aggressively to keep your information safe and secure.

We strongly encourage all governments to be much more transparent about all programs aimed at keeping the public safe. It’s the only way to protect everyone’s civil liberties and create the safe and free society we all want over the long term.

From all these recent developments, maybe there is just one thing we should take note: the world we live in today has become increasingly connected and social that privacy and security as concepts have evolved and taken a slightly different definition. With the continuous growth and development of computing, internet and telco technologies, it is naive of us to think that the government (and to some extent, other malicious or criminal organizations) cannot and will not access the “personal” and “private” information that we share amongst our friends and the community. Hence, we as citizens of the web should be more responsible and aware of the things that we do, say, hear and share. With the help of today’s technology, the world is more open than ever before, and it is simply up to us if we would not be vigilant and allow other groups or individuals to bypass our personal privacy.

Jelly Bean now on 33% of Android devices

Google just recently announced that Jelly Bean (Android 4.2 and 4.1) is now well on its way to rank first in software adoption, while ICS, Gingerbread and the other prior Android releases are slowly being retired in terms of usage on different Android devices.

Specifically, 33% of all Android users are now on Jelly Bean,although a big 36.5% of users are still stuck with Gingerbread. 26.5% still run on Ice Cream Sandwich, 3.2% are still unfortunately stuck on Froyo while a small 0.1% run Honeycomb.

We should note, however, that Google recently changed how it counts users of the different Android versions. According to the company’s official statement, “Beginning in April, 2013, these charts are now built using data collected from each device when the user visits the Google Play Store. Previously, the data was collected when the device simply checked-in to Google servers. We believe the new data more accurately reflects those users who are most engaged in the Android and Google Play ecosystem.”

Source: Google

YouTube, happy 8th birthday!

Today, YouTube turns eight years old, with the company launching back in 2005 as an up and coming startup. Since then, a lot has changed not only on the video sharing platform but in the entire industry as well. However, what has not changed is the exceedingly aggressive strength and growth of YouTube.

Every minute, YouTube says that its community is uploading more than 100hours of video to the platform. Every minute. That’s simply staggering. To put things into perspective, it is the equivalent of four days worth of video uploaded every sixty seconds. Two years ago, this statistic is just around 48hours of video per minute. Last year it was up to 72hours. Indeed, in eight years, YouTube has grown into a web giant, claiming that more than 1B global users per month coming to access video content on the site.

In YouTube’s official blog, see what the company has to say on its eighth birthday:

And so, on our eighth birthday, we’d like to thank you for making YouTube the special place that it is. For showing us how video can create connections, transcend borders and make a difference. For clicking these links even if you aren’t sure what they’ll be, but you trust us. In short, thanks for making us better in big ways and small ones, too. We can’t wait to see what you come up with next.

Source: techcrunch.com

How Search Works by Google

Ever wondered how Google handles your search queries? Ever wondered how their engineers handle thousands to millions of searches daily? Ever wondered what algorithms they use to efficiently rank and categorize results for your benefit? If yes, then wonder no more as Google hosts its new website How Search Works. The site provides insightful information about the algorithms and techniques used in searching and crawling the over 30 Trillion individual pages currently available today. It is very informative and interesting, and somehow makes us appreciate more the technology behind our beloved search engine.

 

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